Essays on climate change and its impacts on plant distribution

The plans should identify resource needs for planning as well as for implementa- tion, and potential existing sources of funding. Plans should provide a flexible framework for setting priorities and coordinating implementation, including regional partnerships, and should ensure strong public participation and nongovernmental and private-sector stakeholder engagement in planning and implementation see Chapter 4. Recommendation 2: The executive branch of the federal government should initi- ate development of a collaborative national adaptation strategy, which might take the form of a national adaptation plan.

The strategy or plan should be de- veloped in partnership with congressional leaders, selected high-level represen- tatives of relevant federal agencies, states, tribes, business and environmental organizations, and local governments and community leaders. Effective adaptation will also require a mechanism that facilitates learning from the various adaptation efforts.

Because public awareness of possible climate change impacts and adaptation strate- gies is inadequate, well-developed engagement is needed that includes ways to train, leverage, expand, and coordinate existing operational capacity within states, regions, sectors, tribes, the private sector, and NGOs. Public education and extension will be im- portant components of adapting to climate change impacts, because effective adap- tation measures will require the participation and support of individual citizens and a variety of sectors and decision makers ACC: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change; NRC, a.

Adaptive management involves learning from past mistakes; recognizing the complexity and the interrelated nature of sectoral interests such as water, agriculture, and energy; and understanding the relationships between adaptation activities and the need to limit GHG emissions. Over time, there will be a need to adapt to our own adaptations and maladaptations as well as to our efforts to limit the magnitude of future climate change. Recommendation 3: Federal, state, and local governments, together with non- governmental partners, should work together to implement a national climate change adaptation program pursuant to the national climate adaptation strat- egy.

Because of the need to continuously develop new approaches, exchange lessons learned across the nation, evaluate efforts, and train decision makers, a critical com- ponent of this national program will be an adaptation support service and network. A lack of serious commitment to adaptation efforts has led to in- adequate research support to provide the science and technology needed to support appropriate and effective decisions NRC, a,b, b , and improving this situa- tion should be a high national priority.

Advances in science and technology are needed to support adaptation analysis and assessment, to identify and develop adaptation options, and to strengthen adaptation management and implementation. Many of these advances are needed very quickly to inform such issues as identifying potential thresholds or tipping points for climate change impacts as they relate to limits of adaptation; prospects and approaches for encouraging voluntary relocation from high-vulnerability areas; and climate change adaptation in a context of sustainability that considers multiple threats, stresses, and opportunities.

Recommendation 4: As part of an integrated climate change research initiative, the federal government should undertake a significant climate change adapta- tion research effort designed to provide a reliable foundation for adapting to the impacts of climate change in a larger context of sustainability. The panel chose to focus much of its discussion and analysis on federal, state, and local govern- ments, but it also recommends actions on the part of nongovernmental partners in the national effort.

Effects of climate change on plant biodiversity - Wikipedia

Recommendation 5: Adaptation planning and implementation at the state and tribal levels should be initiated regardless of whether the federal government provides the necessary leadership. States and tribes will need to take a sig- nificant leadership and coordination role, especially in areas where cities and other local interests have not yet established adaptation efforts. State and tribal governments should develop and implement climate change adaptation plans to guide policy and coordinate with federal, regional, local, and private-sector efforts pursuant to the national climate adaptation strategy.

Significant policy questions need to be addressed from the perspective of developing a U. Conclusions and Recommendations outcomes, including economic and national security considerations. There are multiple ways in which both the opportunities and the risks of climate change are linked across the globe. The potential that climate change will contribute to instability, tension, and conflict as well as increased demand for humanitarian relief has been recognized. They also do not pro- vide sufficiently for exploration of innovative partnerships, techniques, and technologies that could support adaptation action, communication, and trust building between the United States and other countries.

New institutions are needed to host international conversations about adaptation, limiting GHG emissions, capacity building, science needs, and geoengineering issues on a peer-to-peer basis. Recommendation 8: The united States should engage as a major player in ad- aptation activities at the global scale. The united States should support the establishment of a collaborative, sufficiently funded, international adaptation program that can be sustained over time.

Recommendation 9: Adaptation objectives should be incorporated into exist- ing u. Strengthen the ability of the Coastal Zone Management program to address climate impacts by increasing support for the development and implementation of state coastal adaptation plans and strategies. Incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into all federally funded post-disaster redevelopment assistance provided to state and local governments.

Reexamine and revise guidelines National Environmental Policy Act and state equivalents to consider climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options as part of the environmental impact analyses. Incorporate adaptation and sustainability objectives into foreign aid planning and assistance, including the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and U.

Agency for International Development. Assign responsibility for overseeing the impacts of climate change on national security and for adaptations that increase security. Review current state and federal regulations and incentives to identify existing requirements and practices that serve as disincentives to adaptation, and identify ways to amend these statutes and policies.


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Implement best management practices e. Develop a plan of action with private-sector and state and local partners to enhance the resilience of thermal electric power plants and the U.

How Is Climate Change Affecting the Philippines?

Support the design, implementation, and evaluation of early warning and response systems for climate-sensitive health outcomes, including extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks. Revise federal, state, and professional engineering standards to reflect current and anticipated future climate changes and require their use as a condition for federal investments in infrastructure; also, incorporate climate change in the planning process.

Initiate an integrated assessment of urban infrastructure to determine vulnerabilities to climate change impacts and adaptation needs. One ap- proach that vulnerable communities and states might consider is adopting the International Building Code International Code Council, Provide funding, science, and policy support for the collaborative development of regional water management response strategies to address projected changes in water resources and impacts of extreme events. Climate change - Pro-active solutions in the wool industry.

Gray, J. Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. Hahn, G. Bioclimatology and livestock housing: theoretical and applied aspects. Brazilian Workshop on Animal Bioclimatology. Jaboticabal, Brazil.

Harle, K. The potential impacts of climate change on the Australian wool industry by Houghton, J. Climate Change The Scientific Basis. Hussein, K. The effects of climate change on small holder farmers in West and Central Africa. IFAD, Livestock and climate change. Livestock Thematic Papers. Tools for project design. Man and Animals in Hot Environments.

Springer-verlag, New York. Heidelberg, Berlin. IPCC, Climate change Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: Scientific- Technical Analyses. IPCC, a. Summary for Policymakers. Johnson, H.

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Response of animals to heat. Bioclimate effects on growth, reproduction and milk production. Part H, Chapter 3. In: Bioclimatology and the Adaptation of Livestock.

The Effects Of Climate Change On Animal Life

Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Jones, R. Manage uncertainty in climate change projections. Issues for impact assessment. Climatic change 54, Kabubo-Mariara, J. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya: Impacts and adaptations. Koneswaran, G. Global farm animal production and global warming: Impacting and mitigating climate change.

Health Persp. McCarthy, J.

Essay on Climate Change

Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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McDermott, J. Thornton, P. Effects of climate, human population and socio-economic changes on tsetse- transmitted trypanosomiasis to In: World Class Parasites - Vol. ISBN Meadows, S.

Animal Production And Its Effect On The Climate Change

Good news for climate change: Australian scientists to breed sheep that burp less.